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Языки иностранные: английский, немецкий » Топики. Английский » Страны и города » Achievments of USSR
Achievments of USSR
Russia is proud of its achievements in satellite technology and investigation of outerspace. On October 4, 1957, the world's first artificial satellite was launched in our country. With "Sputnik-1" a great deal of programmes of space exploration were implemented. Over the next few years a number of unmanned spaceships of various kinds, ranging from meteorological and communications satellites to lunar probes were launched.

On April 12, 1961, the Soviet Union launched "Vostok-1". For the first time in the history of mankind a manned spacecraft was launched into outerspace. It carried Yury Gagarin in a single orbit around the Earth. German Titov piloted "Vostok-2" spacecraft. It was launched on August 6, 1961, on the first manned spaceflight of more than a single orbit. Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman to travel into space, was launched on June 16, 1963 in "Vostok-6", which completed 48 orbits in 71 hours. In space at the same time was Valery Bykovsky, who had been launched two days earlier in "Vostok-5"; both of them landed on June 19.

"Vostok" flights had demonstrated that man could function while weightless in space. The "Vostok" spacecraft enabled the preparation of new, more complicated flights. Taking over the traditions of the single-sitter "Vostok", multi-sitter "Voskhod" and "Soyuz" spacecraft began to circle around the orbits of the Earth. "Voskhod-2", a two-piloted spacecraft was constructed in such a way that the cosmonaut could leave the ship during flight. On March 18, 1965, Aleksey Leonov left the spacecraft through an airlock to become the first man to float free in space.
Developed for the Earth-orbital space station programme "Soyuz" aircraft were equipped for extended missions of scientific experimentation while in the Earth orbit of up to 30 days duration. There were 40 manned and unmanned "Soyuz" spaceships which were launched between 1967 and 1981. It should be stressed that 30 "Soyuz" flights involved its docking with an orbiting "Salyut" space station. The first record for the longest manned mission in spaceflight history was set in 1981 by the crew of "Soyuz-35". It remained on board "Salyut-6" for 185 days. Other notable "Soyuz" flights include "Apollo-Soyuz" Test Project, the first joint space venture undertaken by the United States and the Soviet Union. During this mission, conducted in July 1975, a three-man U.S. "Apollo" spacecraft met and docked with the two-man "Soyuz-19" craft. The crews performed joint experiments for two days. The joint "Apollo-Soyuz" mission achieved all its major objectives.
"Salyut-1", launched April 19, 1971, was the world's first space station. In 1986 the Soviet Union launched a more advanced type of space station "Mir". This station - a large, permanent, multimanned orbiting complex - was designed to accommodate various modules for crew living quarters and research facilities. On March 13, 1986, cosmonauts Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyev were sent aboard a "Soyuz" spacecraft to dock with "Mir" and become its first occupants. They spent 53 days adjusting equipment and bringing the complex into workable order. Other cosmonauts later visited the station. In 1987 Yury Romanenko set a new endurance record of 326 days in space. The previous record 237 days, was set in 1984 by a Soviet crew in "Salyut-7" space station. In the 1970s and 1980s our scientists concentrated their efforts on numerous experiments into outerspace which involved the cosmonauts' repeated docking. Various "Salyut" orbiting laboratories were equipped for extended missions of scientific experimentation. On board "Salyut" stations our cosmonauts conducted scientific research and made valuable observations of the solar system.
Языки иностранные: английский, немецкий » Топики. Английский » Страны и города » Achievments of USSR
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